The concept of graph dynamical systems (GDS) can be used to capture a wide range of processes taking place on graphs or networks. A major theme in the mathematical and computational analysis of GDS is to relate their structural properties (e.g. the network connectivity) and the global dynamics that result. In mathematics, the concept of graph dynamical systems can be used to capture a wide range of processes taking place on graphs or networks. A major theme in the mathematical and computational analysis of GDSs is to relate their structural properties (e.g. the network connectivity) and the global dynamics that result. The work on GDSs considers finite graphs and finite state spaces. As such, the research typically involves techniques from, e.g., graph theory, combinatorics, algebra, and dynamical systems rather than differential geometry. In principle, one could define and study GDSs over an infinite graph (e.g. cellular automata or Probabilistic Cellular Automata over or interacting particle systems when some randomness is included), as well as GDSs with infinite state space (e.g. as in coupled map lattices); see, for example, Wu.[1] In the following, everything is implicitly assumed to be finite unless stated otherwise. In mathematics and computer science, graph theory is the study of graphs, which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects from a certain collection. A "graph" in this context is a collection of "vertices" or "nodes" and a collection of edges that connect pairs of vertices. A graph may be undirected, meaning that there is no distinction between the two vertices associated with each edge, or its edges may be directed from one vertex to another; see graph (mathematics) for more detailed definitions and for other variations in the types of graph that are commonly considered. Graphs are one of the prime objects of study in discrete mathematics. The graphs studied in graph theory should not be confused with the graphs of functions or other kinds of graphs. Refer to the glossary of graph theory for basic definitions in graph theory. Graphs are among the most ubiquitous models of both natural and human-made structures. They can be used to model many types of relations and process dynamics in phy ical, biological[1], social and information systems. Many problems of practical interest can be represented by graphs. In computer science, graphs are used to represent networks of communication, data organization, computational devices, the flow of computation, etc. One practical example: The link structure of a website could be represented by a directed graph. The vertices are the web pages available at the website and a directed edge from page A to page B exists if and only if A contains a link to B. A similar approach can be taken to problems in travel, biology, computer chip design, and many other fields. The development of algorithms to handle graphs is therefore of major interest in computer science. There, the transformation of graphs is often formalized and represented by graph rewrite systems. They are either directly used or properties of the rewrite systems (e.g. confluence) are studied. Complementary to graph transformation systems focussing on rule-based in-memory manipulation of graphs are graph databases geared towards transaction-safe, persistent storing and querying of graph-structured data. Graph-theoretic methods, in various forms, have proven particularly useful in linguistics, since natural language often lends itself well to discrete structure. Traditionally, syntax and compositional semantics follow tree-based structures, whose expressive power lies in the Principle of Compositionality, modeled in a hierarchical graph. More contemporary approaches such as Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) model syntactic constructions via the unification of typed feature structures, which are directed acyclic graphs. Within lexical semantics, especially as applied to computers, modeling word meaning is easier when a given word is understood in terms of related words; semantic networks are therefore important in computational linguistics. Still other methods in phonology (e.g. Optimality Theory, which uses lattice graphs) and morphology (e.g. finite-state morphology, using finite-state transducers) are common in the analysis of language as a graph. Indeed, the usefulness of this area of mathematics to linguistics has borne organizations such as TextGraphs, as well as various 'Net' projects, such as WordNet, VerbNet, and others.


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