In physics and chemistry, heat is energy transferred from one body to another by thermal interactions.[1][2] The transfer of energy can occur in a variety of ways, among them conduction,[3] radiation,[4] and convection. Heat is not a property of a system or body, but instead is always associated with a process of some kind, and is synonymous with heat flow and heat transfer. Heat flow from hotter to colder systems occurs spontaneously, and is always accompanied by an increase in entropy. In a heat engine, internal energy of bodies is harnessed to provide useful work. The second law of thermodynamics prohibits heat flow directly from cold to hot systems, but with the aid of a heat pump external work can be used to transport internal energy indirectly from a cold to a hot body. Transfers of energy as heat are macroscopic processes. The origin and properties of heat can be understood through the statistical mechanics of microscopic constituents such as molecules and photons. For instance, heat flow can occur when the rapidly vibrating molecules in a high temperature body transfer some of their energy (by direct contact, radiation exchange, or other mechanisms) to the more slowly vibrating molecules in a lower temperature body. The SI unit of heat is the joule. Heat can be measured by calorimetry,[5] or determined indirectly by calculations based on other quantities, relying for instance on the first law of thermodynamics. In calorimetry, the concepts of latent heat and of sensible heat are used. Latent heat produces changes of state without temperature change, while sensible heat produces temperature cha

ge. Overview Heat may flow across the boundary of the system and thus change its internal energy. Heat in physics is defined as energy transferred by thermal interactions. Heat flows spontaneously from hotter to colder systems. When two systems come into thermal contact, they exchange energy through the microscopic interactions of their particles. When the systems are at different temperatures, the result is a spontaneous net flow of energy that continues until the temperatures are equal. At that point the net flow of energy is zero, and the systems are said to be in thermal equilibrium. Spontaneous heat transfer is an irreversible process. The first law of thermodynamics states that the internal energy of an isolated system is conserved. To change the internal energy of a system, energy must be transferred to or from the system. For a closed system, heat and work are the mechanisms by which energy can be transferred. For an open system, internal energy can be changed also by transfer of matter.[6] Work performed by a body is, by definition, an energy transfer from the body that is due to a change to external or mechanical parameters of the body, such as the volume, magnetization, and location of center of mass in a gravitational field.[7][8][9][10][11] When energy is transferred to a body purely as heat, its internal energy increases. This additional energy is stored as kinetic and potential energy of the atoms and molecules in the body.[12] Heat itself is not stored within a body. Like work, it exists only as energy in transit from one body to another or between a body and its surroundings.


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